Mister Richardson's
Church History Class

Chapter 22

A. Efforts to stop Luther
1. Luther was summoned to Rome by the pope in July, 1518.
2. He refused to go due to concerns about being killed on the way.
3. Prince Frederick was able to have the summons canceled.
4. Next, Cardinal Cajetan was sent to get Luther to recant.
5. Luther refused and escaped being arrested by leaving town in secret.
6. After that, Karl von Miltitz was able to persuade Luther to stop speaking against indulgences.
7. Luther agreed to stop if the church would leave him alone.
8. Luther even wrote to apologize to the pope for any harm he might have caused the church.
9. It was about this time that Luther discovered that the Decretals and the Donation of Constantine were forgeries.
10. The truce between Luther and the pope was short-lived.

B. The Leipzig Debate
1. The peace was broken when John Eck challenged Luther to debate the authority and supremacy of the pope in July, 1519.
2. Eck, a brilliant debater, was able to get Luther to support the teaching of John Hus.
3. However, because of Luther's strong Biblical support of his opinions, he was able to change many minds.

C. Excommunication
1. After the Leipzig Debate, Luther became even critical of the papacy.
2. On June 15, 1520, the pope issued a bull condemning 41 of Luther's opinions.
3. This bull also called for the destruction of all of his printed works.
4. Those who refused to comply would also be treated as heretics.
5. This move by the pope was very unpopular in Germany.
6. Luther responded by burning the pope's bull and writing Against the Execrable Bull of Antichrist.
7. The pope officially excommunicated Luther on January 3, 1521.


D. The Diet of Worms
1. Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms which met in April, 1521.
2. He believed he would die there.
3. Luther stood before the emperor, Charles V, and all the German princes.
4. He was asked two questions: "Are these your writings?" and "Will you recant?"
5. Luther responded that the writings were his, but he needed more time to answer the second question.
6. The emperor granted his request.
7. The next day Luther responded that he would not recant unless proven wrong by Scripture.
8. His famous quote was, "Here I stand, I can do no other."
9. On the way back to Wittenberg, Luther was "kidnapped" by Prince Frederick and taken to the Wartburg Castle to protect him.
10. He stayed there almost a year, translating the Bible into German.