Mister Richardson's
Church History Class

Chapter 18

A. Innocent III (1198-1216)
1. The Roman Church rose to its highest power under Innocent III.
2. He had a privileged youth and was made a Cardinal at age 29.
3. He became pope in 1198 at age 37.
4. Innocent followed the ideas of Gregory VII in asserting his power over kings.
5. He used the Donation of Constantine to further the claims of papal power.
6. Innocent restored the Papal States back to their original boundaries.
7. When King John of England opposed him in 1208, Innocent placed England under an interdict.
8. The next year John was excommunicated.
9. John was restored in 1213 when he submitted to the pope.
10. Innocent even allowed crusaders to capture Constantinople, so as to bring the Eastern Empire under his rule.
11. Innocent was successful at turning many kings into his vassals.

B. The Lateran Council
1. Another effort at reform came during the Lateran Council in 1215.
2. A new crusade was decided upon.
3. The Waldenses and Albigenses were condemned as heretics.
4. Indulgences were to be restricted.
5. Education was to be provided for free.
6. Jews were to wear distinctive clothing and could not hold public office.

C. More Efforts at Reform
1. The desire for a reformation of the church was seen in several ways.
2. New orders appeared in the Church that condemned the laxity of the old orders.
3. The Templars, Hospitalers, and Teutonic Knights were established in the Holy Land for the preservation of Christan shrines.
4. The Dominicans were formed for the purpose of preaching and education.
5. They were known as friars and lived among the people.
6. Dominicans were also a mendicant order, which means they took a vow of poverty.

D. The Franciscans
1. The Franciscans took their name after Francis of Assisi, who was born in 1182.
2. Francis was converted at age 20 and began to live a life of poverty and charity.
3. He was especially fond of animals and introduced live nativity scenes at Christmas.
4. The Franciscans grew rapidly, despite their severe vows of poverty and asceticism.
5. It was also claimed that Francis had received the marks of Stigmata.

E. Scholasticism
1. The major universities of Europe were started during this time.
2. Scholasticism was a mixture of theology and philosophy and those who taught it were called Schoolmen.
3. Thomas Aquinas was the greatest of the schoolmen, and his book, Summa Theologica, laid the foundation for much of Catholic theology.
4. Many of the great cathedrals were also built during this time.