Mister Richardson's
Church History Class

Chapter 17

A. The Crusades
1. The Crusades were a series of military expeditions instigated by the pope, from 1095 to 1270.
2. The purpose of the Crusades was to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims.
3. Gregory VII was the first pope to consider a crusade (war of the cross), but was not able to do it.
4. Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land had gotten along with the Arabs.
5. But when the Turks took over, things changed for the worse.
6. In 1095, Pope Urban II called on Christians to rescue the Holy Land from the Turks.
7. All who went were given indulgences and heaven was promised to those who died in battle.

B. Results of the Crusades
1. There were eight crusades in all.
2. The first crusade was a success with Jerusalem being taken in July, 1099.
3. However, after the victory, many crusaders went home, leaving Jerusalem difficult to defend.
4. The other crusades were mostly failures.
5. Saladin re-took Jerusalem in 1187.
6. The Turks maintained control of the Holy Land until World War I.
7. Some of the leaders of the Crusades were Emperor Barbarossa, Richard I (the Lion-hearted), and Peter the Hermit.