Mister Richardson's
Church History Class


Chapter 9


A. The Lombards
1. In 568, the Lombards took over the Po Valley.
2. This part of Italy is today known as Lombardy.
3. The leader of the Lombards had been crowned by Gregory I, to appease them.
4. This crown was known as the Iron Crown because it was thought that one of the nails from the cross of Jesus was used in making it.
5. The presence of the Lombards in Italy was a constant threat to the popes.

B. Pepin the Short
1. Charles Martel was not the King of the Franks, he was the mayor of the palace.
2. Charles' son, Pepin, held the same position as his father.
3. The line of Frankish kings had been weakened since the time of Clovis.
4. Pepin decided to depose Childeric and become king himself.
5. Pepin needed the approval of the pope to legitimize his claim.
6. Pope Zacharias then asked for Pepin's help in his fight against the Lombards.
7. Pepin was crowned King of the Franks in 751.
8. He then subdued the Lombards and turned the land over to the Popes.
9. These lands were known as the Papal States and were controlled by the Popes for over a thousand years.

C. Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
1. After Pepin's death in 768, his sons Carloman and Charles took over.
2. Carloman died three years later.
3. Charles was crowned emperor of the Roman Empire by the pope on Christmas Day, 800, in Rome.
4. Charlemagne's rule brought three things to western Europe: law and order, civilization (education), Christianity.
5. Charlemagne also established schools throughout his kingdom and even became a student himself.
6. His favorite book was Augustine's The City of God.
7. He subdued the Lombards and took their Iron Crown as his own.
8. He also added territory from the Saxons in the north.
9. Charlemagne succeeded in uniting the most European territory under one government since the fall of the western Roman Empire.


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